The Essential Guide to Common Cylindrical Lithium Battery

From 18650 to 4680: Exploring the Range of Common Cylindrical Lithium Battery Models

With the development of lithium battery technology, there is a proliferation of cylindrical lithium batteries of different types and chemistries. These batteries have different materials, structures and performance characteristics.

Each type of cylindrical lithium-ion battery is available in different chemistries, including lithium cobaltate (LiCoO2), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), lithium manganate (LiMn2O4), and a variety of ternary formulations (e.g., lithium nickel-cobalt-manganese oxide, LiNiMnCoO2 / NMC). The choice of battery type and chemistry depends on factors such as energy density, power output, safety and cost, and is tailored to the specific application.

At Saphiion, benefiting from over 10 years of experience in the lithium battery industry, we have deep understanding of battery chemistry, manufacturing and market. Let’s explore some common models and specifications of cylindrical lithium-ion batteries:


The 10440 battery is a type of lithium-ion battery with a diameter of 10mm and a length of 44mm, and we often called “7 batteries”, the capacity is generally very small, only a few hundred mAh. These batteries are commonly used in small electronic devices such as penlights, mini stereo, loudspeaker, keychain flashlights, and miniature electronic gadgets.


The 14500 battery is a type of lithium-ion battery with a diameter of 14mm and a height of 50mm, which is also the specification size we have been known as No.5 battery. According to the material of the battery cell is divided into lithium iron phosphate batteries and lithium cobalt acid batteries. Lithium cobalt acid battery voltage 3.7V, lithium iron phosphate battery voltage 3.2V. The nominal capacity is smaller, a little bigger than 10440 battery, usually 1600mAh. Despite their smaller size, these batteries can still provide significant power and are commonly used in smaller electronic devices such as wireless audio, electric toys, LED flashlights, digital cameras, laser pointers, and small electronics gadgets, etc.


The 18650 battery is one of the most common types of cylindrical lithium-ion batteries. Its name reflects its dimensions: 18mm in diameter and 65mm in height. These batteries have been widely used in various applications due to their compact size, high energy density, and rechargeable nature. Here are some key features and applications:

High Energy Density: Despite its small size, the 18650 battery offers a relatively high energy density, making it suitable for applications where space is limited but long-lasting power is required.

Rechargeable: The 18650 battery is rechargeable, allowing it to be used multiple times, which makes it cost-effective and environmentally friendly compared to single-use disposable batteries.

Wide Applications:

The 18650 battery is used in various applications, including:

  • Consumer Electronics:Portable electronics such as laptops, tablets, smartphones, power banks, electronic cigarettes (vapes), electric shavers and toothbrushes.
  • Emergency Lighting and Backup Power:LED Flashlights, emergency lighting systems, backup power supplies, and uninterruptible power sources (UPS) for critical infrastructure, providing reliable power during power outages or emergencies.
  • Medical Devices:Portable medical equipment and implantable devices including  infusion pumps, defibrillators, and patient monitors, ECG, pacemakers and neurostimulators.
  • Power Tools:Cordless power tools such as cordless drills, saws, impact drivers and electric screwdrivers.
  • Aerospace and Defense:including Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and drones for surveillance, reconnaissance, military operations and Satellite systems.
  • Electric Vehicles (EVs)and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs): including new energy vehicles, electric bicycles and scooters.
  • Solar energy storage systemsand backup power supplies.

Standardized Form Factor: The 18650 battery’s standardized dimensions make it easy for manufacturers to design products that can accommodate it, contributing to its widespread adoption.

Safety Considerations: While generally safe when used properly, lithium-ion batteries, including the 18650, can pose safety risks if mishandled or subjected to abuse. Manufacturers and users should follow proper handling, charging, and storage practices to minimize the risk of accidents such as overheating, fire, or explosion.


21700 Battery Cell:

  • The first and second digits, “21,” represent the diameter (21mm).
  • The third and fourth digits, “70,” represent the height or length (70mm).
  • The fifth digit, “0,” indicates the cylindrical shape.
  • So, an “21700” cell is 21mm in diameter, 70mm height, and cylindrical in shape.

The 21700 battery is another popular cylindrical lithium-ion battery model, pioneered by Tesla and co-developed with Panasonic in 2017. It is slightly larger than the 18650, with a diameter of 21mm and a length of 70mm. Due to its larger size, the 21700 battery typically offers higher capacity and can deliver more power than the 18650. Here are some key features and applications:

Increased Capacity: Compared to 18650 batteries, 21700 batteries are larger and have a higher capacity, with a 35% in single-unit capacity and a reduction in system cost of around 9%. This means 21700 battery can store more energy in the same volume, allowing for longer driving ranges in electric vehicles (EVs) and increased performance.

High Energy Density: With an energy density of around 300Wh/kg, which is more than 20% higher than the energy density of the 18650 batteries, making it suitable for applications where space is limited but high power output is required.

Good Performance: The 21700 battery offers improved performance characteristics, including higher power output and faster charging capabilities. This results in enhanced acceleration, longer battery life, and shorter charging times for Tesla vehicles equipped with these batteries.

Rechargeable: Like most lithium-ion batteries, the 21700 battery is rechargeable, allowing it to be reused multiple times by charging it with an appropriate charger. This makes it a cost-effective and environmentally friendly option compared to single-use disposable batteries.


The 21700 battery is commonly used in a variety of high-performance applications, including:

  • Electric Bicycles (E-Bikes):Some electric bicycles (E-bikes) are powered by the 21700 battery for its higher energy density and longer range compared to traditional lead-acid or lithium-ion batteries. These batteries provide the energy needed for extended rides and hilly terrain.
  • Electric Vehicles (EVs): Many electric vehicle manufacturers are adopting 21700 batteries due to their higher energy density and potential for longer driving ranges.
  • Power Tools: Cordless power tools such as drills, saws, and impact drivers often utilize 21700 batteries to provide longer runtime and higher power output.
  • Industrial Automation and Robotics:These batteries power autonomous robots, robotic arms, and mobile platforms used in manufacturing, logistics, and warehouse operations.
  • Remote Monitoring and Sensing Devices: In remote monitoring and sensing applications, such as environmental monitoring stations, weather buoys, and IoT devices, the 21700 battery provides reliable and long-lasting power. These batteries ensure continuous operation of sensors and communication systems in remote or off-grid locations.
  • Telecommunications Infrastructure:In telecommunications infrastructure, such as cellular base stations and remote communication towers, the 21700 battery serves as a backup power source. These batteries provide uninterrupted power during outages or grid disruptions, ensuring continuous communication services.
  • Data Centers and Server Rooms: Backup power systems in data centers and server rooms rely on the 21700 battery for uninterruptible power supply (UPS). These batteries provide temporary power during mains power failures, allowing for orderly shutdowns or seamless transition to backup generators.

Standardization and Compatibility: While not as widely adopted as the 18650 battery, the 21700 battery is becoming increasingly standardized in the battery industry, allowing for compatibility between different brands and devices that use this type of battery.



The 26650 battery, known for its larger size, measuring 26mm in diameter and 65mm in height. The 26650 model offers increased capacity and power output, and are often used in applications where longer runtime is essential, such as in large flashlights, industrial equipment and power storage systems.

Commonly used lithium batteries made of nickel cobalt manganese cathode material, lithium iron phosphate material – INR26650-3.6V-4500mAh, IFR26650-3.2V-3200mAh.


  • Consumer Electronics: Smartphones, laptops, tablets, cameras, and other portable electronic devices.
  • Electric Vehicles: Electric cars, electric bicycles, scooters, and other forms of transportation.
  • Energy Storage Systems: Grid-scale energy storage, residential and commercial backup power, and renewable energy integration.
  • Aerospace and Defense: Satellites, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and military applications.
  • Medical Devices: Implantable medical devices, portable diagnostic equipment, and patient monitoring systems.


The 4680 battery cell represents a significant advancement in battery technology, particularly in the electric vehicle (EV) industry. It’s a relatively new and advanced cylindrical lithium-ion battery cell developed by Tesla, Inc. The name “4680” refers to its dimensions: 46mm in diameter and 80mm in length. These batteries are notably larger than traditional cylindrical lithium-ion cells like the popular 18650 and 21700 models.

Some key features and benefits of the 4680 battery include:

Increased Energy Density: The larger size of the 4680 cell allows for greater energy storage capacity compared to smaller cylindrical cells. This means that vehicles equipped with 4680 batteries can potentially achieve longer driving ranges on a single charge.

Improved Thermal Management: The 4680 battery cell allows for better heat dissipation during charging and discharging cycles, which contributes to enhanced battery longevity and safety.

Simplified Manufacturing Process: Tesla has implemented innovations in the manufacturing process of the 4680 cell to streamline production and reduce costs. This includes advancements in electrode coating, cell assembly, and structural design.

Structural Integrity: The 4680 battery enables it to serve as a structural component within the vehicle’s architecture, contributing to overall vehicle rigidity and safety.

Application Across Tesla’s Product Line: While initially developed for electric vehicles, Tesla has hinted at the potential for the 4680 battery to be utilized in other products such as stationary energy storage systems and grid-scale batteries.

The introduction of the 4680 battery represents a significant milestone in the ongoing evolution of lithium-ion battery technology, with the potential to revolutionize various industries beyond electric vehicles.


Cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells have become indispensable in powering the technologies that drive our modern world, offering a reliable and efficient energy storage solution for a wide range of application.

Saphiion specialize in providing tailored solutions to meet the unique requirements of our clients across various industries. We stand behind the quality of our lithium-ion batteries with comprehensive warranties and dedicated customer support. Our team is available to assist you with any questions or concerns you may have, ensuring a positive experience with our batteries.

Contact us at to explore the possibilities and find the suitable customs battery packs solution for your needs.

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